Technical Terms
Technical Terms
This appendix contains a list of technical terms used in this documentation including their explanations.
ISDN line for operating a single ISDN terminal. This is usually a telecommunications system with the option of dialing to an extension. In comparison to the multiple connection, the line has the advantage that the number of extension numbers is not limited.
Automatic Call Distribution
Automatic call distribution
Application Programming Interface
Interface for application programs
Block Dialing
All numbers of the destination phone number are entered before the handset has been lifted. In this case, it is still possible to change the phone number after it has been entered. The phone number will be dialed completely (as a block) when the handset is lifted. The opposite of this is ‘Overlap Sending’.
Common ISDN Application Programmable Interface
CAPI is the software interface, which regulates the data transfer between the ISDN card and the applications. The CAPI is a standard, which also supports the D-channel protocol of the Euro-ISDN (DSS1) in the CAPI Version 2.0.
Comité Consultatif International Télégraphique et Téléphonique
International consulting committee for telegraph and telephone service; known as ITU-T today
Call Detail Record
A call detail record provides statistical information, such as caller, duration and cost of the connection.
Client computer
The client computer is a single workstation computer (PC). Many client computers are connected to a server via the network.
CLIP (Calling Line Identification Presentation) is a feature for incoming calls, and can only be activated or deactivated for these. With CLIP, the number of the caller is transmitted to the called subscriber, unless previously restricted on the calling side (CLIR). If the called subscriber has a terminal device with CLIP capability, the caller's number is displayed. If this device has an address book with the possibility of storing names, the corresponding name can also be displayed.
CLIP no screening
CLIP -no screening- is a feature for outgoing calls, and can only be activated or deactivated for these. In addition to the network provided number for the caller, a user provided number, specified by the caller and not screened, can also be sent to the called party.
"no screening" in this context means that the customer-specific number for the caller is not checked for correctness by the transmitting phone network. It can be any number determined by the caller himself. This feature is only possible for ISDN connections on the calling side, and only takes effect for such on the incoming side. For analog connections, only the network provided number is transmitted - assuming CLIR was not activated on the calling side; otherwise none.
For example, the caller can suppress his network provided number with CLIR, and send the caller a different customer-specific number, e.g. the company switchboard or a service number. In general both the caller's numbers, the network-provided and the customer-specific, will be transferred in the public telephone network (if CLIP -no screening- is activated). However, activated services such as CLIP/CLIR on the respective subscriber side (and the type of connection) will decide which number is transmitted to the subscriber himself. Device-specific settings on the receiving side ultimately decide which number is displayed, or whether both are.
Cordless Multicell Integration
Multicellular wireless network for cordless equipment
A protocol developed by Siemens AG and used by SwyxPhone Lxxx to communicate with SwyxServer.
This connection is only used to transmit information to the server, e.g. via an activated button, and to send display information from the server to SwyxPhone. The actual telephony functions are carried out in SwyxServer.
Computer Telephony Integration
Term used for the connection of telecommunications systems and computer systems (e.g. databases) using a special interface. This enables the user to use telephony services from a computer.
Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunication
European Standard for the digital cordless communication between a base station and a transportable device for the range of a few hundred meters.
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
Instead of permanently assigning an IP address to a computer in a LAN, DHCP makes it possible to assign IP addresses dynamically and variably. Applications, which depend on an IP address, are immediately assigned one upon request.
Direct Dial In
DDI refers to the direct dial from a telephone network to a subscriber. Direct dial allows you to dial specific extensions directly via this number.
Demilitarized Zone
In the context of firewalls, a DMZ is a protected logical network segment which contains the publicly accessible services of a company. Thus, a DMZ prevents external access to internal IT structures.
Domain Name Server
A server, which translates the symbolic name (e.g. into an IP address.
Dual Tone Multi Frequency
Seven different frequencies and additional mixture frequencies are transmitted in the telephone line in order to clearly communicate the activated button.
Digital Signal Processor
Direct Dialing-In line
ISDN line, to which a telecommunications system with so-called extension numbers is connected, which can be used to directly contact a subscriber. In the case of the number “(0231) 4777-227, “227” is the extension number within a telecommunications system. An extension number allows you to dial a specific extension of a telecommunications system directly via this defined number.
ITU-T standard for global telephone numbering (country code, local area code and subscriber number, e.g.+49 (231) 123456-789.
tElephone NUmber Mapping
ENUM is an application of the Domain Name System for converting telephone numbers (in the E.164 format) to Internet addresses. An ENUM registration of a VoIP number allows calls to be placed directly via the Internet, for example.
Network for limited local operation (10 m to 10 km) in the LAN. The individual computers are connected via a cable network. Data is transferred within this network at a rate of 10Mbit/s, 100Mbit/s or 1Gbit/s.
Full Duplex (DX, sometimes also FDX, permits simultaneous transmission of information in both direction, e.g. in telephony)
File Transfer Protocol (Network protocol for file transmission)
ITU standard for compression,
here: Audicodec 64 kbit/s
ITU standard for compression,
here: Audicodec 64 kbit/s
ITU standard for compression,
here: Audiocodec 5.3 kbit/s and 6.3 kbit/s
ITU standard for compression,
here: Audicodec 8 kbit/s
Generic Access Protocol
Standard for DECT Handsets, which allows the communication between handsets and basis stations of different manufacturers.
A gateway is a system, which connects two different networks and which can transfer the data in one network to the other network and vice versa. This means that the physical networks can be different and the protocols used (e.g. IP network and ISDN) can also be different.
Global System for Mobile Communication
Global system for mobile communication
A collection of international specifications (ITU), which define the transmission of multimedia data to packet-oriented data connections.
H.323 Alias Name
A symbolic name (e.g. TOMMY), which can be used as the address of an H.323 terminal instead of an IP address.
Standard for additional performance specifications in H.323, such as Conference, Call Forwarding, Hold, Call Swap, etc.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol. A protocol for transmission of data over a network. It is mainly used for loading websites and other data from the World Wide Web (WWW) into a Web browser.
A hub creates a network node in a star-shaped LAN and it connects several clients to the network.
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
International standardization committee
Instant Messaging
(Immediate message transfer). A service that uses the Instant Messenger software (client) to enable real-time communication (chat) with other subscribers. Short text messages are sent using push technology via a network (server) to the recipient (usually via the Internet), who can respond to them immediately. Files can usually also be exchanged by this means. In addition, many messaging programs offer video or telephone conferences.
Hardware address (12 digits) of a DECT handset which allows an unique identification.
Internet Protocol
Fundamental protocol of the Internet, which combines packet-oriented networks with different technical bases to one large network.
Thus this protocol (on layer 3 of the OSI layer model) is used for addressing and distributing data into packets.
An IP address is a 32-bit number, which is usually shown as a four-part number, e.g., and which is assigned to every computer connected to the Internet. Domain names, which are unambiguously assigned to IP addresses using a DNS server, were introduced in order to make these addresses simpler and clearer for users.
IP Private Branch Exchange
A telephone private branch exchange (PBX) which is created by a software application. It uses Voice-over-IP (VoIP) technology for voice transmission.
Integrated Services Digital Network
Service integrating digital network
Internet Telephony Service Provider.
An Internet telephony service provider offers an interface via a gateway between Internet telephony and the classic telephone network. Thus via an ITSP, VoIP users can also reach subscribers in the classic telephone network, and vice versa.
Interactive Voice Response
Interactive Call handling
Local Area Network
A local network, which is made up of numerous, interconnected computer terminals within one company location and which is used to transfer data.
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
A network protocol that allows querying and modification of information of a directory service (a distributed hierarchical database in the network). The current version is specified in RFC 4511.
Light Emitting Diode
Light emitting diode (small light) for displaying status information, e.g. for SwyxPhone.
Medium Access Control Address
Each network card identifies itself with the MAC address. This address is an 8-byte address, which is uniquely defined worldwide.
Mail Application Programming Interface
This Microsoft interface can be used by applications to send E-mails.
Multiple connection
Basic Rate Interface for operating up to eight ISDN terminals (ISDN telephones etc.) on a S0 bus. It is possible to operate ISDN telephones, ISDN cards or ISDN telecommunications systems on a multiple connection. The devices are addressed via MSNs.
Multiple Subscriber Number
A non-direct dialing-in line can have several numbers (MSNs). The assignment of these MSNs to the terminals takes place in the terminals themselves.
Name Resolution
Automatic association of a name to a phone number.
Example: Example: You receive a call from the public telephone network and the caller’s phone number is transmitted. SwyxWare then searches, e.g. in Microsoft Outlook Contacts and in the Personal Phonebook, for a contact matching this phone number. If a contact is found, SwyxIt! will show the name of the caller in addition to the phone number in the display.
Network Address Translation is a method for replacing an IP address by another within a data package. This method is frequently used to map private IP addresses to public IP addresses.
NT mode
Network Terminator
For ISDN (and other protocols) a different behavior is often required, depending on functionality. For ISDN, the exchange operates in NT mode and the telephones (terminals) operate in TE mode. An example of different behavior is the transfer of charging information, which of course is only possible from NT to TE, and not the other way round.
NetBIOS Name
A symbolic name (e.g. WS-SJONES), which is used for addressing a computer, if this computer should be contacted using the Microsoft NetBIOS protocol.
Overlap Sending
The numbers entered are dialed immediately. The destination phone number can no longer be edited. The opposite of this is ‘Block dialing’.
Private Automatic Branch Exchange
Private branch exchange
Private Branch Exchange
Controlling device for telephone systems within a small telephone network, including transition to a public telephone network.
Personal Digital Assistant. Small portable computer, usually equipped with a quick start operating system, and used along with many other programs mainly for personal calendar, address and task management.
Personal Identification Number
This number is linked to the user name, and is used for user authentication.
Network principle in which the data exchange occurs decentrally, directly between the individual computers. In the VoIP field, this means that the connection exists directly between the two subscribers, without server or provider.
Plain Old Telephony System
This is the classic analog telephone.
Power over LAN
Power over LAN is used to identify a property of devices with Ethernet connection, e.g. IP telephones. Thus, the power supply is provided via the Ethernet connection line and not via a power mains plug, as usual. In this case, the Switch or the Hub to which this device is connected per Ethernet must be able to guarantee the power supply via the Ethernet line.
Public Switched Telephone Network
Umbrella term for analog telephone networks, which usually use digital switches.
Quality of Service
The quality in communication networks. Depending on the standard or protocol, different parameters are used for evaluating the properties, such as loss rate, availability, transfer rate and delay.
A router connects different kinds of networks to each other. It recognizes the bordering networks and neighboring routers and it determines the path of the data packet. This connection can be created by using either a software or a hardware solution.
Resource Reservation Protocol
IETF standard to guarantee a certain transmission qualities, such as bandwidth and priority via TCP/IP.
The workstation computers are connected (e.g. via Ethernet) to the server, which is the “central computer”.
Session Initiation Protocol
A network protocol which establishes a communication session between two or more subscribers.
A smartphone unites the functional scope of a mobile phone with that of a PDA. You can use a full keypad or touch screen and speak from a PDA phone. Digital cameras are sometimes also incorporated, as in many mobile phones.
Simple Network Management Protocol
Network protocol developed by the IETF - an open international voluntary association of network engineers, manufacturers and users, which is responsible for proposals for Internet standardization -, to enable network elements (e.g. routers, servers, switches, printers, computers etc.) to be monitored and controlled from a central station.
Simple Network Time Protocol
Standard for synchronizing clocks in computer systems over packet-based communication networks. Although mostly handled via UDP, can also be transported using other layer 4 protocols such as TCP. Specifically developed to enable reliable timing over networks with variable packet propagation time (ping).
Voice Compression
The voice data are compressed and sent via the network. This reduces the amount of data to be transmitted. This is especially important for the Home Office connection and the coupling of several branch offices via the Internet.
STUN is a simple network protocol that recognizes the existence and type of firewalls and NAT routers and uses this information to bypass them.
A network can be divided into several subnets. For example, it is possible to use the IP address to address all computers, which have the number 192.177.65. in common and which only differ from one another in terms of the last three digits (xxx). The subnet mask indicates which positions should be used for differentiation within the subnet. In a subnet, two subscribers communicate directly with each other. The IP packets only have to pass through the router if subscribers communicate outside of the subnet.
A Switch is an active hub, which functions as a kind of exchange. In contrast to the hub, the switch does not forward the incoming data packets to all lines, but rather only to that line which leads to the destination of the packet.
Terminal Adapter
Terminal Application Programming Interface
Interface for programming terminal applications
TE mode
Terminal Endpoint
Terminal Endpoint Identifier
With the help of the TEI, different terminals are addressed to an ISDN bus on Layer 2.
Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol
Two commonly used protocols for the transfer of data and for Internet connection, which can be implemented on different types of transport media.
Transport Layer Security
Internet protocol for encrypted data transfer (SSL advancement)
TAPI Service Provider, driver for TAPI devices
Unified Messaging
Message management system developed in 1989. It denotes a method of bringing incoming and outgoing messages of any kind (e.g. voicemail, email, fax, SMS, MMS, etc) into a standardized form, and granting the user access to this via a wide range of clients (fixed network or mobile phone, email client).
Universal Serial Bus. Bus system for connecting a computer to ancillary equipment. A USB port takes little space, and can supply power to simple devices such as a mouse, a phone or a keyboard. Devices equipped with USB can be connected to each other during active operation (hot plugging), and their properties can be detected automatically.
Virtual LAN. Virtual local network within a physical network. A widespread technical implementation of VLANs is partially defined in the standard IEEE 802.1Q.
Voice over IP
Collective term for all techniques for transmitting voice over IP networks.
Wireless Application Protocol. The Wireless Application Protocol denotes a collection of technologies and protocols, whose aim is to make Internet content available for the slower transmission rates and the longer response times in mobile radio, as well as for the small displays of mobile telephones. WAP is thus in direct competition with the i-mode services.
A file format used for recording voice or music, for example, announcement texts, music on hold, or Voicemail. 16KB of memory are required for each recorded second.